PROHIBITION: Its Economic and Industrial Aspects, by Herman Feldman, Professor of Industrial Relations, Amos Tuck School of Administration and Finance, Dartmouth College--1927

CONTENTS

 

PAGE

Preface

vii

I. INTRODUCTION

1

Factual Basis of the Material

8

Perils of the Questionnaire Method

11

How the List of Concerns Was Drawn up

12

The Letter and the Questionnaire

14

The Replies Submitted by the Industrialists

18

PART ONE

EFFECTS UPON CONSUMPTION AND PURCHASING POWER

II. WAS LIQUOR CONSUMPTION DECLINING BEFORE PROHIBITION?

23

The Trend in 1900-1914

24

Per Capita Consumption before Prohibition

29

Trend of Liquor Consumption Abroad

30

Where Is the Evidence for Increasing Temperance?

34

Some Explanations

38

III. THE NEWER ROLE OF ALCOHOL

44

The Past Use of Alcohol

44

The Present Use of Alcohol

46

Types of Alcohol Produced Today

48

Diversion to Illegal Uses

50

The Problem of Poison Liquor

55

IV. NEAR-BEER AND REAL BEER

60

How Near-Beer Is Made

62

Near-Beer Consumption since Prohibition

64

Why Near-Beer Consumption Has Declined

67

The Brewers' Tactical Error

70

Future of Near-Beer

72

V. BEVERAGES SUBSTITUTED FOR BEER

74

Milk Consumption since Prohibition

75

Root Beer, Orange Juice, Grape Juice

79

Coca-Cola and Similar Drinks

80

Ginger Ale, Siphons, and Other "Mixers"

81

Do People Drink More Coffee and Tea Instead of Liquor?

83

Summary: Substitute Beverages Compared with Former Liquor Consumption

86

VI. ICE CREAM PARLORS, CANDY STORES, TOBACCO SHOPS AND CAFETERIAS IN THE VOLSTEAD ERA

88

Ice Cream Consumption

88

Candy Consumption

90

Do People Smoke Who Used to Drink?

94

Cafeterias and the Abolition of the Saloons

96

VII. HAS PROHIBITION INCREASED DRUG ADDICTION?

101

What Authoritative Reports Indicate

103

Trend of Known Drug Consumption

106

Estimates of the Number of Addicts

109

Survey by the Committee on Drug Addictions

112

Repeated Denials Disregarded

114

VIII. Is THE AVERAGE WORKER SPENDING LESS ON DRINK?

116

The Country's Drink Bill

118

Economics of Drinking at Home

127

Pay Checks and the Saloons

128

Decline of the Treating Habit

130

Garnishments by Wives and Collectors

131

Charity Cases Caused by Drink

133

Prohibition and Thrift

137

IX. THE "POOR MAN'S CLUB": WHAT HAS TAKEN ITS PLACE?

146

The Movies vs. the Saloons

147

Flivvers vs. Saloons

149

The Home vs. the Saloon

152

Radios and Prohibition

158

Sports and Recreation

157

Economic Significance of the Change

158

PART TWO

EFFECTS UPON PRODUCTION

X. INDUSTRY'S PRE-PROHIBITION VOLSTEADISM: ITS RULES REGARDING LIQUOR


165

Liquor Rations Once a Feature of Industry

165

Growing Antagonism to Liquor

168

Industry's Rules against Liquor Today

171

Some Typical Replies from Employers

172

Liquor among Railroad Employees Tabooed

175

Legal Prohibition plus Industrial Prohibition

175

The Sentiment for Industry's Own Prohibition

180

XI. HAS PROHIBITION REDUCED DISCHARGES FOR DRUNKENNESS?

182

What Industrial Concerns Report

183

Some Individual Replies

185

Prohibition Only One Factor

191

Why Statistics Are Not Available

192

Concerns Reporting Conditions Worse

195

Violence in Labor Disputes

196

Conclusions

198

XII. HAS PROHIBITION ELIMINATED "BLUE MONDAYS" FROM INDUSTRY?

200

Statistical Data Lacking

202

What Executives Report

204

The Employers Who Find Things Worse

210

XIII. PROHIBITION AND INDUSTRIAL ACCIDENTS

213

No Official Data Available on Accidents Due to Liquor

215

Results from Questionnaire to Industrial Concerns

216

Official Opinion

223

The Trend of Accident Statistics

225

Summary

227

XIV. PROHIBITION AND THE EFFICIENCY OF THE WORKER

229

Physiological Effects of Liquor

232

Professor Irving Fisher's Conclusions

235

The Replies from Executives

242

A Comment on Perspective

248

Labor Turnover and Prohibition

250

Professor Carver on Dependability and "Vertical Mobility"

251

PART THREE

GENERAL ECONOMIC EFFECTS

XV. DOES THE SALESMAN HAVE TO CARRY A BOTTLE?

255

Selling over the Bar in the Old Days

256

The Change in Attitude

257

Reports on Conditions Today

258

Some Salesmen Still Use Old Bait

263

Sales Practices in Transition

265

XVI. IS "MODIFICATION" THE ANSWER TO FARM RELIEF?

270

Wheat and Oats (Grits)

272

Corn

272

Rice

273

Rye

274

Barley and Malt

275

Hops

276

Grapes

278

Increased Demand for Various Farm Products

281

The Farm Relief Problem

282

XVII. HOTELS, CITY CONVENTIONS, AND REAL ESTATE VALUES SINCE PROHIBITION


286

The Hotel Industry under Prohibition

286

The Changed Hotel Atmosphere

291

Hotels' Problem of Law Enforcement

293

Effect on Summer Hotels

294

Conventions Lured to Canada

295

Real Estate Values and Prohibition

299

XVIII. BREWERIES, BREWERY WORKERS, BOTTLE MAKERS, BARTENDERS, AND DISTILLERIES SINCE PROHIBITION


306

Peculiarities of Brewery Property

307

Manufacture of Near-Beer, Soft Drinks, Confectionery, and Ice Cream

310

Ice-Making and Cold Storage

312

The Plight of Some Brewers

313

Other Industries SECURE Available Property

315

The Extraordinary Case of Anheuser-Busch

316

The Skilled Brewery Worker under Prohibition

322

The Bartending Profession since Prohibition

323

The Bottle Workers

325

The Whiskey and Brandy Distilleries

326

XIX. HAS PROHIBITION INCREASED AUTOMOBILE ACCIDENTS?

330

Crude Statistics Used for Propaganda

331

The Background: Increase in Automobile Hazards

334

Drunken Drivers in Massachusetts

337

Rhode Island

340

Connecticut

343

Per Cent of Automobile Accidents Ascribed to Liquor

344

Future Statistical Complexities

346

XX. PROHIBITION AND THE HIGH COST OF CRIME

351

The Available Data

353

The U.S. Census Report

356

General Arrests as an Index of Crime

360

Contentions of the "Wets"

362

Contentions of the "Drys "

366

Conclusion

367

XXI. PROHIBITION: ITS LONG-TIME ECONOMIC EFFECTS

370

Long-Time Values the Criterion

371

Economic Losses Caused by Prohibition

372

Advantages to Production

377

Effects upon Consumption

381

Economic Importance of the Redirection of Expenditure

385

Benefits of Prohibition Insecure

391

The Next Few Years Will Tell

393

APPENDIX: MORTALITY ASCRIBED TO ALCOHOLISM AND POISON ALCOHOL

395

INDEX

407